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How to Manage Respiratory Infections, Coughs and Colds at Home
Whitman-Walker Health
Whitman-Walker Health

March 02, 2020

 

Updated March 9, 2020. Actualizado en 9 de marzo de 2020. የተዘመነውበማርች 9 ፣ 2020 ሁን።

 See Whitman-Walker Health’s full recommendations for preventing the spread of germs that can cause the common cold, flu and coronavirus here. Learn facts about the coronavirus here and get more information on general prevention for the coronavirus from DC Health at coronavirus.dc.gov and from the CDC at cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/index.html.

Facts About Coughs

  • Coughs can help keep mucus and germs out of your lungs. This can protect your lungs from pneumonia.
  • Coughs can be dry (meaning the absence of mucus) or wet (meaning the presence of mucus).
  • A coughing fit, or coughing spell, is considered non-stop coughing that lasts over 5 minutes.
  • Most new coughs are caused by a virus -- like the cold or flu. A viral cough (aka a cough caused by a virus) can last from 2-to-3 weeks. Viral coughs can not be treated with antibiotics.
  • The majority of coughs should be treated at home.
  • A short-term cough may also be due to an irritating substance like smoke, strong perfume or dust.
  • A cough that lasts over 3 weeks may have a more serious cause.

 

How is a cough good for the body?

  • A cough clears the airways of germs, foreign bodies, and other irritants (such as pollen).
  • It can help protect people from choking on food and contents from your stomach.
  • Coughs aren’t completely bad. Coughs help clear the airways and can protect your lungs from infections.

 

Do antibiotics treat a cough?

  • Upper Respiratory Infections (URI): The common cold is an example of a URI. URIs are commonly caused by viruses which include rhinoviruses, influenza (the flu), and coronaviruses (including the new coronavirus). Antibiotics are not helpful when treating URIs.
  • Acute Bronchitis: Most of the time, bronchitis is caused by a virus. Viral bronchitis (aka bronchitis caused by a virus) cannot be treated with antibiotics. Bronchitis caused by bacteria is more common in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and other long-term lung problems. If you are a long term smoker or have diagnosed COPD and develop a cough, please call 202.745.7000 and inform your Whitman-Walker care team.
  • Pneumonia: Pneumonia can be caused by both viruses and bacteria. People with pneumonia are short of breath and usually have a fever. If you are developing shortness of breath or have a fever with your cough of 101 degrees F or higher please give us a call at 202-745-7000.

 

How to Manage Your Cough at Home

Most short-term coughs can be treated at home. Here is some care advice that should help treat your cough.

  • Remedies for Coughs
    • Honey: Honey has been shown to decrease coughing at night. The adult dose is 2 teaspoons (or 10 ml) at bedtime. Children under the age of one should NOT take honey.
      • Recent Research Study: A recent study compared honey to the drug dextromethorphan (DM). It showed that honey worked better than DM (an OTC cough medicine). People who took honey reported they coughed less often, and that their cough was less severe. It also helped people sleep better. DM scored only slightly better than no treatment at all.
      • How Honey Might Work: Honey increases saliva and airway secretions. This keeps the airways moist and helps remove the tickle that causes dry cough.
    • Cough Drops: You can get over-the-counter (OTC) cough drops at the store. These work best for mild coughs and soothe the tickle in the back of your throat. Carry a handful in your bag or pocket.
    • Hard Candy: Hard candy works as well as cough drops. People with diabetes should-use sugar-free candy when treating a cough.
    • Diabetic? People with diabetes should be careful using honey, cough drops, or hard candy as these may increase your blood sugar. Look for sugar-free options if you are diabetic.
  • Coughing Fits and Spells
    • Breathe warm mist (such as with shower running in a closed bathroom).
    • Drink warm fluids (such as tea, hot water with honey, or warm apple cider).
    • Both warm mist and warm fluids relax the airway and loosen up mucus.
  • Stay Well Hydrated
    • Drink plenty of liquids. They help soothe the throat.
    • Liquids also help loosen mucus in the lungs and makes it easier to cough up that mucus -- and release it from your body.
  • Humidifier
    • Dry air makes coughs worse. If you can access a humidifier, use it to help reduce how dry the air in your surroundings is.
  • Avoid Tobacco Smoke
    • Do not smoke and avoid being around others who smoke.
    • Smoking and second-hand smoke can make coughs much worse.
  • What to Expect
    • Coughs caused by an irritating substance (like dust, smoke or perfume) usually last a few minutes to an hour. This is a dry cough and there is no mucus.
    • Coughs caused by a common cold or acute bronchitis last 1 to 3 weeks. You may cough up lots of white, grey, yellow or green mucus during this time and that is normal.
    • A wet cough can sound worse than a dry cough, but it is not more serious than a dry cough.
  • Return to School or Work
    • You can return to school or work after your fever is gone and you are no longer in need of medication for your cough symptoms for at least 24 hours.
    • You should also feel well enough to do your normal activities.

 

Over the Counter (OTC) Medicines for Cough:

  • OTC Cough Syrup - Dextromethorphan (DM)
    • OTC Cough Syrups: Some people experience a decrease in coughing when using cough syrups. Dextromethorphan is the most common cough suppressant in OTC cough syrups. Often the letters “DM” appear in the name.
    • Cough syrups work best for coughs that keep you awake at night. They can help with a dry, hacky cough at the end of a cold. They can be used along with cough drops.
    • Examples of Cough Syrups: Benylin, Robitussin DM, Vicks 44 Cough Relief. ***Be sure to read the instructions and warnings on the package for all medicines you take.
  • Warning - Dextromethorphan (DM)
    • Do not try to stop your cough if you are coughing up mucus. The cough helps bring up mucus and germs from the lungs. This can protect you from getting pneumonia.
    • Research: Some studies show that DM helps a cough get better. Other studies show it had little to no effect in treating coughs.

 

Over the Counter (OTC) Medicines for Cough:

  • Fever and Pain Medicine
    • For fever above 101 degrees F (or 38.3 degrees C) or for pain, take ONE of the drugs listed below.
    • These are OTC medicines that you can buy at the store without a prescription.
    • The goal is to bring a fever down to a comfortable level. Fever medicine usually lowers fevers by 2 degrees F (or 1 to 1.5 degrees C).
      • Acetaminophen (Tylenol)
        • Regular Strength Tylenol: Take 2 pills (for a total of 650 mg) every 4 to 6 hours. Each pill has 325 mg of acetaminophen.
        • Do not take more than 9 pills (or more than 3250 mg) in a single day.
        • Extra Strength Tylenol: Take 2 pills (for a total of 1,000 mg) every 8 hours. Each pill has 500 mg of acetaminophen. Do not take more than 9 pills (or 4500 mg) in a single day.
      • Ibuprofen (Motrin, Advil):
        • Motrin and Advil: Take 2 pills (for a total of 400 mg) every 6 hours. Each pill has 200 mg of Ibuprofen.
        • A second choice is to take 3 pills (for a total of 600 mg) every 8 hours.
        • Do not take more than 9 pills (or 1800 mg) in a single day.
  • Warning - Fever and Pain Medicines
    • Use the lowest amount of medicine that makes you feel better.
    • Your medical provider should be familiar with you and your health problems, and may direct you to take more than what is suggested above.
    • Acetaminophen is safer than ibuprofen in people over 65 years old. Acetaminophen is in many OTC and prescription drugs. It might be in more than one drug you are taking. Be careful with how much you take. Taking too much of this drug can hurt your liver.
    • CAUTION - Ibuprofen:
      • Do not take ibuprofen if you are pregnant.
      • Do not take this drug if you have stomach problems (ulcers or heartburn) or kidney disease.
      • Do not take this drug for more than 7 days without checking with your medical provider.
    • READ the instructions and warnings on the package insert for all medicines you take.

 

Call Your Medical Provider If…

  • Trouble breathing, shortness of breath or wheezing occurs or you are coughing at night so much that you cannot sleep
  • Your fever lasts more than 3 days
  • Your cough lasts more than 3 weeks
  • You think you need to be seen
  • Your symptoms and overall health get worse

 

Prevent the Spread of Germs

  • Stay home if you are coughing and/or sneezing!
  • Use a tissue to cover your coughs and sneezes and throw your used tissue in the trash. If you do not have a tissue, turn away from people and cough into your shoulder or your sleeve. If you have a mask you can wear one, but this won’t fully protect the people around you.
  • Do not use your hands to cover your coughs and sneezes.
  • Do not shake hands with others when you are sick.
  • Avoid touching your eyes, nose and mouth as these are the easiest areas for germs to spread through.
  • Wash your hands often to avoid getting sick. Wash your hands with soap and water for 20 seconds -- aka the equivalent of singing the “Happy Birthday” or “¡Feliz cumpleaños!” song twice. If soap and water is unavailable, use an alcohol based hand sanitizer. Wash your hands before you eat.
  • Clean and disinfect frequently touched objects, like your cell phone, door knobs, reusable beverage containers and work space using disinfectant wipes or sprays.

This document is intended for home management of symptoms, but should not be used as a substitute for the care and advice of a medical professional. Know that we are here to answer questions and if you are feeling worse, please give us a call at 202.745.7000 to talk to one of our nurses and a provider if needed. The accuracy of the information contained in this document is not guaranteed and there may be variations in treatment that your medical provider recommends based on individual facts and circumstances.

*Adapted from ClearTriage, Health Navigator LLC


Cómo manejar las infecciones respiratorias, la tos y los resfriados en casa 

 

Consulte aquí las recomendaciones completas deWhitman-Walker Health para prevenir la propagación de gérmenes que pueden causar el resfriado común, la gripe y el coronavirus. Obtenga información sobre el coronavirus y obtenga más información sobre prevención general para el coronavirus de DC Health en coronavirus.dc.gov y de los CDC en cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/index.html.

 

Datos sobre la tos

  • La tos puede ayudar a mantener la mucosidad y los gérmenes fuera de los pulmones. Esto puede proteger sus pulmones de la neumonía.
  • La tos puede ser seca (lo que significa ausencia de mucosidad) o húmeda (lo que significa presencia de mucosidad).
  • Se considera que una persona tiene un ataque de tos o exceso de tos si tose sin interrupciones por un período de más de 5 minutos.
  • La mayoría de los nuevos tipos de tos son causados por virus, como el resfriado o la gripe. Una tos viral (es decir, una tos causada por un virus) puede durar de 2 a 3 semanas. La tos viral no puede ser tratada con antibióticos.
  • En la mayoría de los casos, la tos debe tratarse en casa.
  • Una tos de corto plazo también puede deberse a una sustancia irritante como el humo, un perfume fuerte o el polvo.
  • Una tos que dura más de 3 semanas puede tener una causa más grave.

¿En qué sentido la tos es buena para el organismo?

  • Una tos libera las vías aéreas de gérmenes, cuerpos extraños y otros irritantes (tales como el polen).
  • Puede ayudar a proteger a las personas de atragantarse con la comida y los contenidos de su estómago.
  • La tos no es completamente mala. La tos ayuda a liberar las vías aéreas y puede proteger a sus pulmones contra infecciones.

¿Los antibióticos tratan la tos?

  • Infecciones de las Vías Respiratorias Superiores (URI, por sus siglas en inglés): El resfriado común es un ejemplo de una URI.Las URIs son causadas normalmente por virus, entre los que se incluyen los rinovirus, el virus de la influenza (la gripe) y los coronavirus (incluido el nuevo coronavirus). Los antibióticos no son útiles para tratar las URIs.
  • Bronquitis aguda: La mayoría de las veces la bronquitis es causada por un virus. La bronquitis viral (es decir, la bronquitis causada por un virus) no se puede tratar con antibióticos. La bronquitis causada por una bacteria es más común en personas con enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica (EPOC) y otros problemas de pulmón de largo plazo. Si usted es un fumador de larga data o se le ha diagnosticado EPOC y desarrolla una tos, llame al 202.745.7000 e informe al equipo de atención de Whitman-Walker.
  • Neumonía: La neumonía puede ser causada tanto por virus como por bacterias. Las personas con neumonía tienen dificultades para respirar y generalmente presentan fiebre.Si presenta falta de aire o tiene tos con fiebre de 101 grados F o más, llámenos al 202-745-7000.

Cómo manejar su tos en casa

La mayoría de los tipos de tos de corto plazo se pueden tratar en casa. A continuación, le brindamos algunos consejos para ayudarlo a tratar su tos.

  • Remedios caseros para curar la tos
    • Miel: Se ha demostrado que la miel disminuye la tos por las noches. La dosis para un adulto es de 2 cucharadas (o 10 ml) a la hora de acostarse. Los niños menores de un año NO deben consumir miel.
      • Estudio de investigación reciente: Un estudio de investigación reciente comparó la miel con el fármaco dextrometorfano (DM). Se demostró que la miel funcionaba mejor que el DM (un medicamento de venta libre para tratar la tos). Las personas que toman miel informaron que tosieron con menos frecuencia y que su tos era menos grave. También ayudó a las personas a dormir mejor. El DM resultó apenas un poco mejor que ningún tratamiento en absoluto.
      • Cómo podría actuar la miel: La miel aumenta la saliva y las secreciones en las vías aéreas. Esto mantiene las vías aéreas húmedas y ayuda a eliminar el cosquilleo que causa la tos seca.
    • Pastillas para aliviar la tos: En cualquier farmacia puede obtener pastillas de venta libre para la tos. Funcionan mejor si la tos es leve y sirven para suavizar el cosquilleo en la parte posterior de la garganta. Lleve unas cuantas en su cartera o bolsillo.
    • Caramelos duros: Los caramelos duros funcionan tan bien como las pastillas para la tos. Las personas con diabetes deben usar caramelos sin azúcar para tratar la tos.
    • ¿Es diabético? Las personas con diabetes deben ser cuidadosas con el consumo de la miel, pastillas para la tos o caramelos duros, ya que estos pueden aumentar el azúcar en sangre.Si es diabético, busque opciones sin azúcar.
  • Ataques y accesos de tos
    • Tome un baño de vapor cálido (tal como cuando se deja correr la ducha en un cuarto de baño cerrado).
    • Beba líquidos tibios (tales como té, agua caliente con miel o sidra de manzana tibia).
    • Tanto el vapor cálido como los líquidos tibios relajan las vías aéreas y liberan la mucosidad.
  • Manténgase bien hidratado
    • Beba abundante cantidad de líquido. Esto lo ayudará a suavizar su garganta.
    • Los líquidos también ayudan a liberar la mucosidad en los pulmones, y ayudan a expectorar y eliminar las flemas del cuerpo.
  • Humidificador
    • El aire seco empeora la tos. Si puede acceder a un humidificador, úselo para ayudar a reducir la sequedad del aire en su entorno.
  • Evite el humo de tabaco
    • No fume y evite estar con personas que fumen.
    • Fumar y ser fumador pasivo puede empeorar la tos mucho.
  • Qué esperar
    • La tos causada por una sustancia irritante (tal como polvo, humo o perfume) generalmente dura de unos pocos minutos a una hora. Es una tos seca, sin mucosidad.
    • La tos causada por un resfriado común o bronquitis aguda dura entre 1 y 3 semanas. Usted puede expectorar mucha mucosidad blanca, grisácea, amarillenta o verde durante este período, y eso es normal.
    • Una tos húmeda puede sonar peor que una tos seca, pero no es más grave.
  • Regreso a la escuela o al trabajo
    • Puede regresar a la escuela o al trabajo luego de que le haya bajado la fiebre y ya no necesite tomar medicamentos para tratar los síntomas de la tos hace por lo menos 24 horas.
    • También se debería sentir lo suficientemente bien como para realizar sus actividades normales.

Medicamentos de venta libre para la tos:

  • Jarabe de venta libre para la tos - Dextrometorfano (DM)
    • Jarabes de venta libre para la tos: Algunas personas tosen menos cuando toman jarabes para la tos. El dextrometorfano es el supresor de la tos más común presente en los jarabes de venta libre para la tos. A menudo las letras “DM” aparecen en el nombre.
    • Los jarabes para la tos funcionan mejor en la tos que le impide dormir de noche. Pueden ayudarlo si tiene tos seca y con flema al final de un resfriado. Se pueden usar junto con las pastillas para la tos.
    • Ejemplos de jarabes para la tos: Benylin, Robitussin DM, Vicks 44 Cough Relief. ***Asegúrese de leer las instrucciones y advertencias en el embalaje de todos los medicamentos que tome.
  • Advertencia - Dextrometorfano (DM)
    • No intente detener la tos si está expectorando. La tos ayuda a expectorar y eliminar los gérmenes de los pulmones. Esto puede protegerlo contra la neumonía.
    • Investigación: Algunos estudios indican que el DM ayuda a aliviar la tos. Otros estudios indican que tiene poco o ningún efecto en el tratamiento de la tos.

Medicamentos de venta libre para la tos:

  • Medicamentos contra la fiebre y el dolor
    • Para fiebre por encima de los 101 grados F (o 38.3 grados C) o dolor, tome UNO de los siguientes medicamentos.
    • Estos son medicamentos de venta libre que puede comprar sin receta.
    • La meta es bajar la fiebre hasta un nivel cómodo. Los medicamentos contra la fiebre generalmente disminuyen la fiebre en 2 grados F (o 1 a 1.5 grados C).
      • Paracetamol o acetaminofén (Tylenol®)
        • Tylenol® Regular Strength: Tome 2 comprimidos (por un total de 650 mg) cada 4 a 6 horas. Cada comprimido contiene 325 mg de paracetamol (acetaminofén).
        • No tome más de 9 comprimidos (o más de 3250 mg) en un solo día.
        • Tylenol® Extra Strength: Tome 2 comprimidos (por un total de 1.000 mg) cada 8 horas. Cada comprimido contiene 500 mg de paracetamol (acetaminofén). No tome más de 9 comprimidos (o 4500 mg) en un solo día.
      • Ibuprofeno (Motrin, Advil):
        • Motrin y Advil: Tome 2 comprimidos (por un total de 400 mg) cada 6 horas. Cada comprimido contiene 200 mg de ibuprofeno.
        • Una segunda opción es tomar 3 comprimidos (por un total de 600 mg) cada 8 horas.
        • No tome más de 9 comprimidos (o 1800 mg) en un solo día.
  • Advertencia - Medicamentos contra la fiebre y el dolor
    • Use la dosis más baja de medicamento que haga que se sienta mejor.
    • Su proveedor médico debe estar familiarizado con usted y con sus problemas de salud, y puede indicarle una dosis más elevada que la sugerida anteriormente.
    • El paracetamol (acetaminofén) es más seguro que el ibuprofeno en personas mayores de 65 años. El paracetamol está presente en muchos medicamentos recetados y de venta libre. Podría estar presente en más de un medicamento que usted esté tomando. Tenga cuidado con la dosis que toma. Tomar una dosis muy elevada de este medicamento puede causar daño al hígado.
    • ADVERTENCIA - Ibuprofeno:
      • No tome ibuprofeno si está embarazada.
      • No tome este medicamento si tiene problemas estomacales (úlcera o acidez estomacal) o enfermedad renal.
      • No tome este medicamento durante más de 7 días sin consultar a su proveedor médico.
    • LEA las instrucciones y advertencias del prospecto de todos los medicamentos que tome.

Llame a su proveedor médico si...

  • Tiene dificultad para respirar, falta de aire o sibilancia, o si tose tanto de noche que no puede dormir
  • Su fiebre dura más de 3 días
  • Su tos dura más de 3 semanas
  • Le parece que necesita que lo revisen
  • Sus síntomas y estado de salud general empeoran

Evite el contagio de gérmenes 

  • ¡Quédese en casa si tiene tos y/o estornudos!
  • Use un pañuelo descartable para cubrir su tos y sus estornudos, y arroje el pañuelo descartable usado a la basura. Si no tiene un pañuelo descartable, aléjese de las demás personas y tosa sobre su hombro o su manga. Si tiene un barbijo, puede usarlo, pero esto no protegerá por completo a las personas a su alrededor.
  • No use sus manos para cubrir su tos y sus estornudos.
  • No estreche las manos de otras personas cuando esté enfermo.
  • Evite tocarse los ojos, la nariz y la boca, ya que estas son las áreas a través de las cuales los gérmenes se contagian más fácilmente.
  • Lávese las manos frecuentemente para evitar enfermarse. Lávese las manos con agua y jabón durante 20 segundos -- es decir, el equivalente a cantar la canción “Happy Birthday” o “¡Feliz cumpleaños!” dos veces. Si no dispone de agua y jabón, use alcohol desinfectante para manos. Lávese las manos antes de comer.
  • Limpie y desinfecte con frecuencia los objetos que toca, como su teléfono celular, los picaportes de las puertas, recipientes de bebidas reutilizables y su espacio de trabajo, mediante paños o sprays desinfectantes.

Este documento está orientado al manejo de los síntomas en el hogar, pero no debe utilizarse como un reemplazo de atención y consejo de un profesional médico.Sepa que estamos aquí para responder sus preguntas y, si siente que su salud empeora, llámenos al 202.745.7000 para hablar con uno/a de nuestros/as enfermeros/as y con un proveedor de salud, en caso de ser necesario.La exactitud de la información contenida en este documento no está garantizada, y pueden existir variaciones en el tratamiento que le recomiende su proveedor médico con base en hechos y circunstancias individuales.

*Adaptado de ClearTriage, Health Navigator LLC


የመተንፈሻ አካል ህመሞችን፣ ሳልን እና ጉንፋንን በቤት እንዴት መቆጣጠር ይቻላል

የኋይትማን–ዋከር ጤናን ሙሉ ምክር እንዴት የኮሮናቫይረስ፣ ጉንፋን እና ኢንፍሉዌንዛ አምጪ ተዋህሲያንን ከመዛመት መከላከል እንደምንችል እዚህ ያግኙ፡፡ ስለ coronavirus እውነታውን ይወቁ እና ከዲሲ ጤና በ coronavirus.dc.gov እና ከሲ.ሲ. ሲ. cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/index.html ላይ ስለ አጠቃላይ በሽታ መከላከያ ተጨማሪ መረጃ ያግኙ።

የሳል እውነታዎች
  • ሳል ተወህሲያንን እና ንፍጥን ከሳንባ ለማውጣት ይጠቅማል፡፡ ሳንባን ከሳንባ ምች ይከላከላል፡፡
  • ሳል ደረቅ (ማለትም የንፍጥ አለመኖር) ወይም እርጥብ (የንፍጥ መኖር) ሊሆን ይችላል፡፡
  • ሳል ምትሃት ወይም እልከኛ ሳል የሚባለው ከ5 ደቂቃ በላይ ሲቆይ ነው፡፡
  • አብዛኞቹ አዳዲስ ሳሎች የሚመጡት በቫይረስ ነው -- እንደ ጉንፋን ወይም ኢንፍሉዌንዛ፡፡ ቫይራል ሳል(ማለትም በቫይረስ የመጣ ሳል) ከ2 እስከ 3 ሳምንታት ሊቆይ ይችላል፡፡ የቫይረስ ሳሎች በአንቲባዮቲክ ሊታከም አይችልም፡፡
  • አብዛኞቹ ሳሎች መታከም ያለባቸው በቤት ውስጥ ነው፡፡
  • የአጭር ጊዜ ሳል ሊሆን የሚችለው በሚያስቆጣ ነገር እንደ ሲጋራ ጪስ፣ ጠንካራ ሽቶ ወይም ብናኝ ነው፡፡
  • 3 ሳምንት እና ከዛ በላይ የቆየ ሳል ከባድ ምክንያት ሊኖረው ይችላል፡፡
ሳል ለሰውነት ጥሩ ነው?
  • ሳል የሰውነታችንን አየር ቧንቧ ለተዋህሲያን፣ ባእድ አካላት እና ሌሎች አስቆጪ ነገሮች (እንደ አበባ ብናኝ) ክፍት ያደርጋል።
  • ሰዎችን ከምግብ ትንታ እና ይዘቶችን ከሆዳችን ይከላከላል፡፡
  • ሳሎች ሙሉ በሙሉ መጥፎ አይደሉም፡፡ ሳል የሰውነታችንን አየር ቧንቧ ይከፍታል እና ሳንባችንን ከመበከል ይከላከላል፡
አንቲባዮቲክ ሳልን ያክማል?
  • የከፍተኛው መተንፈሻ አካል በሽታ (URI): ጉንፋን የURI ምሳሌ ነው፡፡ URI በብዛት የሚከሰቱት እንደ ራይኖቫይረስ፣ ኢንፍሉዌንዛ እና ኮሮናቫይረስ (አዲሱን ኮሮናቫይረስ ጨምሮ) ባሉ ቫይረሶች ነው፡፡ URIዎችን ለማከም አነቲባዮቲክስ ምንም አይጠቅሙም፡፡
  • የሳንባ ምች፡ ብዙ ጊዜ ፣ የሳንባ ምች የሚመጣው በቫይረስ ነው፡፡ ቫይራል የሳንበ ምች (በቫይረስ የሚመጣው የሳንባ ምች) በአንቲባዮቲክስ ሊታከም አይችልም፡፡ በባክቴሪያ የሚመጣው የሳንባ ምች በብዛት የሚታየው (COPD) እና ሌሎች የረጅም ጊዜ የሳንባ በሽታዎች ያሉባቸው ሰዎች ላይ ነው፡፡ የረጅም ጊዜ አጫሽ ከሆኑ ወይም ተመርምረው COPD ከተገኘብዎት እና ሳል ከጀመረዎት፣ እባክዎትን ወደ 202.745.7000 ይደውሉ እና ኋይትማን–ዋከር ቡድናችንን ያሳውቁ፡፡
  • ኒሞኒያ፡ ኒሞኒያ በሁለቱም በቫይረስ እና በባክቴሪያ ሊመጣ ይችላል፡፡ ኒሞኒያ ያለባቸው ሰዎች ትንፋሽ ያጥራቸዋል እና ብዙ ጊዜ ትኩሳት አላቸው፡፡ የትንፋሽ መቆራረጥ እያዳበሩ ከሆነ እና ከሳልዎት ጋር ትኩሳትዎ 101 ዲግሪ ፋ እና ከዛ በላይ ከሆነ እባክዎ 202-745-7000 ላይ ይደውሉልን፡፡
ሳልዎትን በቤት እንዴት መቆጣጠር ይችላሉ
አብዛኞቹ የአጭር ጊዜ ሳሎች በቤት ሊታከሙ ይችላሉ፡፡ ሳልዎትን ለማከም እነዚህ የተወሰኑ ምክሮች ናቸው፡፡
  • አንዳንድ የሳል መድሃኒቶች
    • ማር፡ ማር በማታ ሳልን ሲቀንስ ይስተዋላል፡፡ ለትልቅ ሰው በመኝታ ሰዓት 2 የሻይ ማንኪያ (ወይም 10 ml) ነው የሚወሰወደው፡፡ ከአንድ አመት በታች የሆኑ ህፃናት ማር መውሰድ የለባቸውም፡፡
      • የቅርብ ጊዜ ጥናት፡ የቅርብ ጊዜ ጥናት ማርን ከመድሃኒቱ ዴክሶሜቶርፋን (DM) ጋር አወዳድዎታል፡፡ እንደሚያሳየው ማር ከ DM(የOTC የሳል መድሃኒት) በላይ እንደሚሰራ ነው፡፡ ማር የሚወስዱ ሰዎች እንደተናገሩት ቶሎቶሎ አያስላቸውም፣ እና ሳላቸው የበረታ አይደለም፡፡ ሰዎች የተሸለ እንቅልፍ እንዲተኙም ያግዛል፡፡ DM ከምንም ያልተሻለ መሻሻልን ነው ያሳየው፡፡
      • ማር እንዴት ሊሰራ እንደሚችል፡ ማር የምራቅ እና የመተንፈሻ አካላት ፈሳሽን ምርት ይጨምራል፡፡ ይህ የአየር ቧንቧውን ከመድረቅ በመከላከል ደረቅ ሳልን ያስቀራል፡፡
    • የሳል ጠብታዎች፡ ቀለል ያሉ (OTC) የሳል ጠብታዎችን ሱቅ ማፍኘት ይችላሉ፡፡ እነዚህ የበለጠ የሚጠቅሙት ቀለል ያለ ሳል ላይ ሲሆን ጉሮሮ ጀርባ ላይ የሚኮረኩረውን ነገር ያክማሉ፡፡ በእጅ የሚያዝ ያህል በቦርሳዎ ወይም በኪስዎ ይያዙ፡፡
    • ደረቅ ከረሜላ፡ ደረቅ ከረሜላ እንደ ሳል ጠብታዎች ያህል ይሰራል፡፡ ስኳር በሽታ ያለባቸው ሰዎች ሳል ሲያክሙ መጠቀም ያለባቸው ስኳር የሌለውን ከረሜላ ነው፡፡
    • ስኳር በሽታ አለብዎት? ስኳር በሽታ ያለባቸው ሰዎች ማር፣ የሳል ጠብታ ወይም ደረቅ ከረሜላ ሲጠቀሙ መጠንቀቅ አለባቸው ምክንያቱም የስኳር መጠናቸውን ስለሚጨምሩ፡፡ ስኳር በሽታ ካለብዎት ስኳር የሌላቸውን አማራጮች ይመልከቱ፡፡
  • የሳል መደጋገም እና ድግምት፡፡
    • እንፋሎት ይተንፍሱ(ሻወር ከፍተው ባኞውን በመዝጋት)
    • ትኩስ ነገሮችን መጠጣት (እንደ ሻይ፣ ሙቅ ውሃ በማር ወይም ሙቅ አፕል ሲደር)።
    • ሁለቱም እንፋሎት እና ትኩስ ነገሮች የአየር ቧንቧውን በማረጋጋት ንፍጥን ያላላሉ፡፡
  • ውሃ በደንብ ይጠጡ
    • ብዙ ፈሳሾችን ይውሰዱ፡፡ ጉሮሮን ለማረጋጋት ረዳሉ፡፡
    • ፈሳሾች ሳንባ ውስጥ ያለውን ንፍጥ በማላላት ያንን ንፍጥ በሳል ለማውጣት -- እና ከሰውነት ለማስወገድ ቀላል ያደርጉታል፡፡
  • አየርን ማርጠብ
    • ደረቅ አየር ሳልን ያብሳል፡፡ አየርን ማርጠብያ ካለዎት፣ በአካባቢዎ ያለውን አየር ደረቅ እንዳይሆን ይጠቀሙበት፡፡
  • የሲጋራ ጪስን ይራቁ፡፡
    • አያጭሱ እና ሌሎች የሚያጨሱ ሰዎችንም ይራቁ፡፡
    • ማጨስ እና ጭስን መተንፈስ ሳልን በጣም ያባብሳል፡፡
  • ምን መጠበቅ አለብን
    •  ሳል ሊመጣ የሚችነው አስቆጪ ነገሮችን (እንደ ጪስ፣ ሽቶ እና ብናኝ) ያሉትን በመተንፈስ ሲሆን ብዙ ጊዜ ጥቂት ደቂቃዎች እስከ አንድ ሰዓት ሊቆይ ይችላል፡፡ ይህ ደረቅ ሳል ሲሆን ምንም ንፍጥ የለውም፡፡
    • በጉንፋን ወይም ሳንባ ምች የሚመጣ ሳል ከ1 እስከ 3 ሳምንታታ ይቆያል፡፡ በዚህ ጊዜ ብዙ ነጭ፣ ግራጫ፣ ቢጫ ወይም አረንጓዴ አክታ ሊወጣ ይችላል እና ይህ ትክክል ነው፡፡
    • እርጥብ ሳል ከደረቅ ሳል የበለጠ ድምፁ ሊያስፈራ ይችላል፣ ግን ከደረቅ ሳል አይብስም፡፡
  • ወደስራ ወይም ወደ ትምህርት ቤት መመለስ
    • ወደስራ ወይም ወደ ትምህርት ቤት መመለስ የሚችሉት ትኩሳትዎ ከወረደ እና ለሳልዎ ምንም መድሃኒት ሳያስፈልግዎት ቢያንስ 24 ሰዓት ከቆዩ ነው፡፡
    • መደበኛ ስራዎችን ሲሰሩ ልክ መሆን አለብዎትት፡
(OTC) መድሃኒቶች ለሳል፡
  • OTC የሳል ሽሮፕ- ዴክሶሜቶርፋን (DM)
    • OTC የሳል ሽሮፕ፡ አንዳንድ ሰዎች የሳል ሽሮፕ ሲጠቀሙ ሳላቸው እንደቀነሰ ይናገራሉ፡፡ ዴክሶሜቶርፋን የተለመደው የጉንፋን ማፈኛ OTC የሳል ሽሮፕ ነው፡፡ ብዙ ጊዜ ስሙ ላይ “DM” አለ፡፡
    • የሳል ሽሮፖች የበለጠ የሚሰሩት ለሊት ለሚያስልዎት ነው፡፡ ጉንፋን ሊለቅ ሲል ላለው ደረቅ፣ ረባሽ ሳል ይረዳሉ፡፡ ከሳል ጠብታዎች ጋር አንድ ላይ መወሰድ ይችላሉ፡፡
    • የሳል ሽሮፕ ምሳሌዎች፡ ቤኒሊን፣ ሮቢቱሲን DM ቪክስ 44 የሳል ማስታገሻ ***ከመጠቀምዎ በፊት መመሪያዎቹን በትክክል ማንበብዎን እርግጠኛ ይሁኑ፡፡
  • ማስጠንቀቂያ- ዴክሶሜቶርፋን (DM)
    • አክታ እያሳሎት ከሆነ ሳሉን አያቋርጡ፡፡ ሳል አክታ እና ተዋህሲያን ከሳንባ ለማውጣት ያግዛል፡፡ ኒሞኒያ እንዳይይዝዎት ይከላከላል፡፡
    • ምርምር፡ አንዳንድ ጥናቶች እንደሚያሳዩት DM ሳልን እንደሚያሽል ያሳያሉ፡፡ ሌሎች ጥናቶች ከምን ያልተናነሰ የሳል ህክምና እንደሚሰጥ ያሳያሉ፡፡
(OTC) መድሃኒቶች ለሳል፡
  • የትኩሳት እና ህመም መድሃኒት
    • ከ101 ድግሪ ፋ በላይ (ወይም 38.2 ዲግሪ ሴ) ወይም ለህመም አንድመድሃኒት ይውሰዱ፡፡
    • እነዚህ OTC መድሃኒቶች ናቸወ ያለማዘዣ መግዛት የምንችላቸው፡፡
    • እቅዱ ትኩሳትን ወደተስማሚ ደረጃ ማውረድ ነው፡፡ የትኩሳት ብዙ ጊዜ ትኩሳትን ወደ 2 ዲግሪ ፈ (ወይም 1 እስከ 1.5 ዲግሪ ሴ) ያወርዳል፡፡
      • አሴታሚኖፌን (ታይሌኖል)
        •  መደበኛ ጥንካሬ ታይሌኖል፡ በየ 4 እስከ 6 ሰኣቱ 2 ኪኒን (አጠቃላይ 650 mg) ይውሰዱ፡፡ እያንዳንዱ 325 mg አሴታሚኖፌን አለው፡፡
        • በአንድ ቀን ብዙ (ከ3250 mg በላይ) አይውሰዱ፡፡
        • ተጨማሪ ጥንካሬ ታይሌኖል፡ በየ 8 ሰኣቱ (አጠቃላይ 1,000 mg) 2 ኪኒን ይውሰዱ፡፡ እያንዳንዱ 500 mg አሴታሚኖፌን አለው፡፡ በአንድ ቀን ከ9 ኪኒኖች በላይ (ወይም 4500 mg) አይውሰዱ፡፡
      • ኢቡፕሮፊን (ሞትሪን፣ አድቪል)፡
        • ሞትሪን እና አድቪል፡ በየ 6 ሰኣቱ (አጠቃላይ 400 mg) 2 ኪኒን ይውሰዱ፡፡ እያንዳንዱ ኪኒን 200 mg ኢቡፕሮፊን አለው፡፡
        • ሁለተኛው አማራጭ 3 ኪኒን (በአጠቃላይ 600 mg) በየ8 ሰዓቱ ይውሰዱ፡፡
        • በአንድ ቀን ከ9 ኪኒኖች በላይ (ወይም 1800 mg) አይውሰዱ፡፡
  • ማሳሰቢያ - ትኩሳት እና ህመም መድሃኒቶች
    • እንዲሻልዎት ትንሹን መጠን መድሃኒት ይውሰዱ፡፡
    • መድሃኒት አቅራቢዎ ሊያውቅዎት፣ እና ከላይ ከተጠቀሰው በላይ እንዲወስዱ ሊያዝዎት ይችላሉ፡፡
    • ከ 65 አመት በላይ ላለ ሰው አሴታሚኖፌን ከኢቡፕሮፊን ይሻላል፡፡ አሴታሚኖፌን በብዙ OTC እና ማሀዣ መድሃኒቶች ውስጥ ይገኛል፡፡ በሚወስዱት ከአንድ በላይ መድሃኒት ውስጥ ሊኖር ይችላል፡፡ ምን ያህል እየወሰዱ እንደሆነ ይጠንቀቁ፡፡ ብዙ መድሃኒት መውሰድ ጉበትን ይጎዳል፡፡
    • ማሳሰቢያ- ኢቡፕሮፊን
      • ነፍሰጡር ከሆኑ ኢቡፕሮፊንን አይውሰዱ፡፡
      • የሆድ ችግር (ቁስል ወይም ማቃጠል) ወይም የኩላሊት ህመም ካለብዎት ኢቡፕሮፊንን አይውሰዱ፡፡
      • ህክምና አቅራዎት ጋር ሳይነጋገሩ ከ7 ቀን በላይ ይህንን በድሃኒት አይውሰዱ፡፡
    • ሁሉንም የሚወስዱትን መድሃኒት ውስጥ ያለውን መመሪያ ያንብቡ፡፡
 
ህክምና አቅራቢዎትን ያናግሩ …
  • መተንፈስ ካቃተዎት፣ ትንፋሽ ከተቆራረጠ እና ማታ ማታ እንቅልፍ እስኪያስቸግርዎ ማሳል ከጀመሩ
  • ትኩሳት ከ3 ቀን በላይ ከቆየ
  • ሳል ከ3 ቀን በላይ ከቆየ
  • መታየት ያለብዎት ከመሰለዎት
  • የአጠቃላይ ጤናዎ እየባሰ ከመጣ
የተዋህሲያኑን መዛመት እንከላከል
  • እያሳሉ እና/ወይም እያስነጠሱ ከሆነ ቤት ይቆዩ!
  • ሳልዎትን፣ ማስነጠስዎትን በሶፍት በመሸፈን የተጠቀሙትን ሶፍት ቆሻሻ መጣያ ውስጥ ይጣሉ፡፡ ሶፍት ከሌለዎት፣ ከሰዎች በተቃራኒው በመዞር ትከሻዎ ላይ ወይም ኮሌታዎ ላይ ያስሉ፡፡ ማስክ ካለዎት ይልበሱት፣ ይህ ግን በአቅራቢያ ዎት ያሉትን ሰዎች ሙሉ በሙሉ አይጠብቅም፡፡
  • ሳል እና ማስነጠስን ለመሸፈንእጅዎትን አይጠቀሙ።
  • ከታመሙ ከሌሎች ጋር አይጨባበጡ፡፡
  • ተዋህሲያን እንዲዛመቱ ቀላሉ መንገድ ስለሆነ አይኖችዎ፣ አፍንጫዎትን እና አፍዎትን አይንኩ፡፡
  • እንዳይታመሙ እጆችዎትን በተደጋጋሚ ይታጠቡ ። እጆችዎትን በሳሙና እና ውሃ ለ20 ሰኮንዶች ይታጠቡ -- ማለትም “መልካም ልደት” ወይም “¡Feliz cumpleaños!” ዘፈንን ሁለቴ መዝፈን ነው። ሳሙና እና ውሃ ካልተገኘ፣ አልኮል ባለው እጅ ማጽጃ ይጠቀሙ፡፡ ከመመገብዎ በፊት እጅዎትን ይታጠቡ፡፡ 
  • ያጽዱ እና ያክሙ በብዛት የሚነኳቸውን ቁሳቁስ እንደ ስልክ፣ የበር እጀታ፣ ድጋሜ የምንጠቀማቸውን መጠጥ መያዣዎች እና የስራ ቦታን አካሚ ማፅጃዎችን ወይም ፍሊቶችን በመጠቀም፡፡
ይህ ሰነድ የምልክቶችን ቁጥጥር በቤት ውስጥ ለማድረግ ነው፣ ግን እንደ ሃኪም ምክር ምትክ ተደርጎ መወሰድ የለበትም፡፡ ከባሰብዎት ጥያቄዎትን ለመመለስ ዝግጁ መሆናችንን እያወቁ 202.745.7000 ላይ በመደወል ከአንድ ነርሳችን እና አቅራቢ ጋር ማውራት ይችላሉ፡፡ በዚህ ሰነድ ውስጥ ያለው መረጃ ሙሉ በሙሉ ትክክለኛነቱ የተረጋገጠ አይደለም እናም በህክምናው ላይ በግል ሃኪም ምክር የግል ሁኔታዎችን በመመልከት ልዩነቶች ሊኖሩ ይችላሉ፡፡

 

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Gerard Tyler, Disco & Getting Friends Tested

March 25, 2018

40 STORIES

Carl Corbin, Whitman-Walker Makes Me Feel Like ...

March 18, 2018

40 STORIES

Joanne Sincero, Serving Empathy

March 11, 2018

40 STORIES

Chris Straley, Understanding Us as People

March 04, 2018

40 STORIES

Richshaad Ryan, Marking Each Birthday with an H...

February 25, 2018

40 STORIES

Grayson & Christine, I See the Real You

February 17, 2018

40 STORIES

Kermit Turner, Music Notes and the Many Faces o...

February 11, 2018

40 STORIES

Madison Chambers, Growing & Educating with Real...

February 03, 2018

40 STORIES

Jim Graham, An Influential Leader

January 27, 2018

40 STORIES

Meet Dr. Mary Edwards “Walker”

January 20, 2018

40 STORIES

Meet Walt Whitman

January 13, 2018

POLICY BLOG

DC Is First in the Nation to Use ‘X’ Gender Mar...

July 19, 2017

BLOG

Hoop’N for Care, Hoop’ N 4 HIV

July 10, 2017

POLICY BLOG

Moving the Needle on Reproductive Justice and F...

April 17, 2017

POLICY BLOG

A Major Step Forward for LGBTQ Civil Rights

April 13, 2017

BLOG

Community Connection Series

March 24, 2017

POLICY BLOG

Summit on Black Lives: Black America’s Response...

February 08, 2017

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